The following list gives the bibliographical references of theses and scientific papers in conferences or journals that either explain the theory at the base of SAFIR or show results of research works undertaken with SAFIR. Only references that have the author of SAFIR in the author's list are reported here. Other publications have been written by scientists of other research groups.


Theory, bases and validation

Gernay, T., Franssen, J.M. (2017), "Modeling structures in fire with SAFIR®: Theoretical background and capabilities", Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, Vol. 8, issue 3, pp. 300-323.


The unloading of building materials submitted to fire, J.-M. Franssen, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 16, N°3 (1990), 213-227

A comparison between five structural fire codes applied to steel elements, J.-M. Franssen, J.-B. Schleich, L.-G. Cajot, D. Talamona, B. Zhao, L. Twilt and K. Both, Fourth International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, Ottawa, (1994), 1125-1136

Numerical simulation of a full scale fire test on a loaded steel framework, J.-M. Franssen, C.M.E. Cooke & D.J. Latham, J. Constructional Steel Research., Vol. 35 (1995), 377-407

Residual stresses in steel profiles submitted to the fire : an analogy, J.-M. Franssen, Proc. of the 3rd CIB/W 14 FSF Workshop on Modelling, L. Twilt, editor, TNO, (1996), 103-112

Contributions à la modélisation des incendies dans les bâtiments et de leurs effets sur les structures, J.-M. Franssen, Thèse d'agrégation de l'enseignement supérieur, Univ. de Liège, (1997), pp 484.

Evaluation of the thermal part of the code SAFIR by comparison with the code TASEF, D. Pintea & J.-M. Franssen, Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Steel Structures, Vol. 2, M. Ivan ed., MIRTON, Timisoara, (1997), 636-643

User Manual for SAFIR A Computer Program for Analysis of Structures at Elevated Temperature Conditions, D. I. Nwosu, V. K. R. Kodur, J.-M. Franssen & J. K. Hum, National Research Council Canada, int. Report 782 (1999), pp 69

New quadrangular shell element in SAFIR, D. TALAMONA, J.-M. FRANSSEN, Proc. 1rst int. Structures in Fire workshop, J. M. Franssen ed., Liège (2000), 195-210

Numerical Modelling of Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel I-Beams under Fire Conditions - Comparison with Eurocode 3, Paulo M. M. Vila Real & Jean-Marc Franssen, J. Fire Protection Engineering, Vol. 11, N°2 (2001), 112-128

Nonlinear Thin Shell Finite Element for Steel and Concrete Structures Subjected to Fire: Theoretical Development, Talamona D. & Franssen J.-M., J. Applied Fire Science, Baywood Publishing Company Inc., Vol. 11, N°4 (2002-2003), 291-310.

SAFIR. A Thermal/Structural Program Modelling Structures under Fire, Jean-Marc Franssen, Proc. NASCC 2003, A.I.S.C. Inc., Baltimore, April 2-4 (2003)

Validation of a shell finite element for concrete and steel structures subjected to fire, D. Talamona, L. Lim & J.-M Franssen, 4th Int. Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, Londonderry, University of Ulster, 8-12 September, pp198-199 (2003)

Heat transfer by radiation in internal cavities with a complex shape, Franssen J-M, Proc. of the SEI-SFPE conf. Designing structures for fire, Baltimore, DEStech Publ. Inc. (2003), 33-42

Dynamic Analysis Used to Cope with Partial and Temporary Failures, Franssen J-M, Gens F, SiF'04, Structures in Fire, Proc. of the 3rd Intl Workshop, NRC-CNRC, IRC, Ottawa, Franssen, Benichou, Kodur & Sultan ed. (2004), 297-310

Numerical modelling of two-way reinforced slabs in fire, Lim L, Buchanan A, Moss P, Franssen J-M, Engineering Structures, Elsevier, 26 (2004), 1081-1091

Validation of a shell finite element for concrete and steel structures subjected to fire, Talamona D, Lim L. & Franssen J.-M., Fire and Explosion Hazards, Proc. 4th Int. Seminar, Bradley D. et al ed., Newtownabbey (2004), 577-588

SAFIR. A Thermal/Structural Program Modelling Structures under Fire, Franssen J.-M., Engineering Journal, A.I.S.C., Vol 42, No. 3 (2005), 143-158

A Quadrangular Shell Finite Element for Concrete and Steel Structures Subjected to Fire, D. Talamona & J-M Franssen, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol. 15 (2005), 237-264

Numerical analysis of the effect of localised fires on composite steel concrete buildings, J-M Franssen, D. Pintea & J. C. Dotreppe, 4th Int. workshop Structures in Fire, Univ. of Aveiro, Vila real et al. ed. (2006), 885-896

3D simulation of Industrial Hall in case of fire Benchmark between ABAQUS, ANSYS and SAFIR, Cajot L.G. & Vassart O. PROFILARBED Research, Luxembourg; O'Connor M. & Shenkai Y. Corus United Kingdom Limited;  Fraud C. & Zhao B. CTICM, France; De la Quintana J. & Martinez de Aragon J. Fundacion LABEIN Spain;  Franssen J.M. & Gens F, University of Liège, Belgium

Numerical modelling of membrane action of composite slabs in fire situation, C. Vulcu, Th. Gernay, R. Zaharia, J.M. Franssen, 6th Int. Conf. Structures in Fire, Michigan State University, Kodur & Franssen ed. (2010), 474-483

Large-scale fire test of unprotected cellular beam acting in membrane action, O. Vassart, C. G. Bailey, M. Hawes, A. Nadjai, W. I. Simms, B. Zhao, T. Gernay, J.M. Franssen, Proc. ICE: Structures and Buildings, Vol. 165 no. 7 (2012), 327–334

A formulation of the Eurocode 2 concrete model at elevated temperature that includes an explicit term for transient creep, T. Gernay, J.M. Franssen, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 51 (2012), 1-9

Effect of Transient Creep Strain Model on the Behavior of Concrete Columns Subjected to Heating and Cooling, T. Gernay, Fire Technology, Vol. 48 no. 2 (2012), 313-329

A multiaxial concrete model for applications in structural fire engineering, T. Gernay, A. Millard, 7th Int. Conf. Structures in Fire, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Fontana et al. ed. (2012), 531-540

Validation of the Advanced Calculation Model SAFIR Through DIN EN 1991-1-2 Procedure, R. Zaharia, T. Gernay, 10th Int. Conf. ASCCS, Singapore (2012)

A multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation
, T. Gernay, J.M. Franssen, 13th Fire and Materials Conf., San Francisco, USA, Interscience ed. (2013), 149-161


A multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation: Theoretical formulation, T. Gernay, A. Millard, J.M. Franssen, Int J Solids Struct, Vol. 50 no. 22-23 (2013), 3659-3673


Effective stress method to be used in beam finite elements to take local instabilities into account, J.M. Franssen, B. Cowez, T. Gernay, Fire Safety Science 11, Christchurch, New Zealand, IAFSS (2014), 544-557



J.M. Franssen and R. Zaharia, Design of Steel Structures subjected to Fire (


SAFIR applied to prestressed beams at ambient temperature, J.-M. Franssen, External Prestressing in Structures. Non-Linear Calculation Tests of Prestressed Beams, Association Française pour la Construction, (1993), 67-73


Design and Tests of Prestressed Concrete Beams, J.-M. Franssen & A. Bruls, Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Fire Safety Science, Melbourne, IAFSS, Hasemi ed., Tsukuba, (1997), 1081-1092


Numerische Modellierung von Tragwerken unter Brandeinwirkung, J.-M. Franssen, Stahlbau 68, Heft 6, (1999), 421-428


Application of the SAFIR Computer Program for Evaluating Fire Resistance, V. K. R. Kodur, D. I. Nwosu, M. A. Sultan and J.-M. Franssen, Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Fire Research and Engineering, SFPE-NIST-IAFSS, Chicago, (1999), 287-295


Failure temperature of a System Comprising a Restrained Column Submitted to Fire, J.-M. Franssen, Fire Safety Journal, Vol 34 (2000), 191-207

Residual load bearing capacity of structures exposed to fire, J.-M. FRANSSEN, V. KODUR, Invited paper, Proc. ASCE structures Congress, Washington DC, (2001), pp. 12

Numerical Determination of 3D temperature fields in steel joints, Jean-Marc Franssen & Luc Brauwers, Proc. 2nd int. Workshop "Structures in Fire", Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, P. J. Moss ed. (2002), 1-20

Lateral Buckling of Steel I Beams at Elevated Temperature - Comparison between the Modelling with Beam and Shell Elements, Valdenir de Souza Junior & Jean-Marc Franssen, Proc. 3rd European Conf. On Steel Structures, ISBN: 972-98376-3-5, Coïmbra, Univ. de Coïmbra, A. Lamas & L. Simoes da Silva ed. (2002), 1479-1488

Numerical modelling of a single storey industrial building at elevated temperature - comparison between the 2D and 3D analyses, V. de Souza Junior, G. J. Creus & J.-M. Franssen, MECOM 2002, First South-American Congress on Computational Mechanics, Santa Fe-Paraná, Argentina (2002), 1986-1997

Consequences of imperfect insulation - Numerical Modeling, Jean-Marc Franssen, Fire Protection Engineering Magazine, S.F.P.E., Issue No. 18 (2003), 24-33.

Numerical determination of 3D temperature fields in steel joints, Franssen J-M, Fire and Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 28 (2004), 63-82

Fire safety engineering analysis of a supermarket structure composed of cambered cellular beams, Franssen J.-M., Majkut S., Cajot L.-G. & Vassart O., EUROSTEEL 2005, 4th European Conf. on Steel and Composite Structures, Hoffmeister B. & Hechler O. ed., Aachen (2005), 137-144

Failure of a Tied-Arch Bridge Submitted to a Severe Localized Fire, Dotreppe J.-C., Majkut S. & Franssen J.-M., Structures and Extreme Events, IABSE Symposium Lisbon, I.A.B.S.E. (2005), 272-273

Development of a new composite cellular beam. Olivier Vassart and Louis-Guy Cajot, ArcelorMittal R&D Long Carbon, Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg,  Jean-Pierre Muzeau and Hamid Bouchaïr, from Blaise Pascal University, Clermont Ferrand, France. THE SINGAPORE ENGINEER, Aug 2008

Performance of Cellular composite floor beams at elevated temperatures, NADJAI, O. VASSART, F. ALI, D.TALAMONA, A. ALLAM, M. HAWES Fire Safety Journal, Volume 42, Issues 6-7, September-October 2007, Pages 489-497


Fire analysis of a new steel bridge, E. Tonicello, S. Desanghere, O. Vassart, J.M. Franssen, 7th Int. Conf. Structures in Fire, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Fontana et al. ed. (2012), 815-822


Structural Behavior of Concrete Columns under Natural Fires, T. Gernay, M.S. Dimia, Engineering Computations, Vol. 30 no. 6 (2013), 854-872

Numerical analysis of partially fire protected composite slabs
, R. Zaharia, C. Vulcu, O. Vassart, T. Gernay, J.M. Franssen, Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 14 no. 1 (2013), 21-39  

A plastic-damage model for concrete in fire: Applications in structural fire engineering, T. Gernay, J.M. Franssen, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 71 (2015)268–278


A performance indicator for structures under natural fire, T. Gernay, J.M. Franssen, Engineering Structures, Vol. 100 (2015), 94-103

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